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1 "1879 History of Greene County Illinois" Page 711 McPHERRON AMOS, farmer, Sec. 26, P.O. Carrollton. Among those who are identified with the interests of the county, there are none in this township, coming at the time he did, that are now living on the same ground they enetered. He came to this State in the year 1828, and bought a man's claim, and when the land came in market he entered it, and has since remained on it. He was born in Knox County, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1796; there were thirteen children in the family, born of Samuel and Elizabeth McPherron, who were natives of Virginia. At the age of 23 he was married to Hettie Morris; their marriage was celebrated in September, 1819; remained at home with his father a short time, then moved to Clinch River; remained there seven years, then made the trip in a wagon to this country. They have had ten children, six of them now living: Samuel, William, James, Henry, Hester Ann, and Eliza Adaline. William and Henry are in Texas, Samuel in Missouri, James near Carrollton; the two girls are in Macoupin County. Dec. 20, 1942, he lost his wife, and in August, 1843, was married to Mrs. Elizabeth Meldrum; by this marriage they have had two children: Margaret, born July 13, 1844, now the wife of James Hawkins; Charles W., born July 31, 1846, now living on the farm. Amos McPherron is now 82 years of age, and is remarkably well preserved, and enjoys good health, and seems likely to live many years yet; has been a long-life Democrat; has been a member of the M.E. Church for over sixty years; has never taken any active part in politics but "votes straight." In brief, Mr. McPherron is one of the oldest, and there are none either young or old who are more highly respected than he; has long been identified with the interest of the county, and well deserving of the esteem with which he is held. McPheron, Amos (I3910)
 
2 "Abigail survived her companion thirteen years, and. then, it is likely, was laid by his side." Downing, Abigail (I25999)
 
3 "An Old Battlefield" Transcript of a document from St Mary's church in Mucklestone To the traveller - cyclist or pedestrian - few places present more diversified, quiet, rural scenery than the borderland of Cheshire, Shropshire, and Staffordshire, which rivals the sylvan beauties of Warwickshire and its neighbouring counties. But whilst this district can boast of classic Stratford, of romantic Kenilworth, of ancient Coventry and Warwick, and their many delightful associations, the locality of which I write has, comparatively speaking, few such names to recommend it to the imaginative mind. In that way its record cannot be considered a brilliant one. In England's battles, however, Cheshire has done bold service in defence of king and country, and it was chiefly from the yeomen of Cheshire and Shropshire that Lord Audley drew his army of 10,000 men, and gave battle to the enemies of his sovereign, King Henry VI. This was in the autumn of 1459. The struggle for supremacy between the two rival houses of York and Lancaster had commenced in the month of May four years previously. When the country round St Albans was decked out in all the pageantry of early summer, and luxuriant growth of wood and flowers beautified the earth, wild internecine war waged in the hitherto sleepy town hard [sic] by, and its streets ran with the best blood of the land. Four autumns had come and gone, and a fifth was replendent with yellowing limes and chestnuts, and on the heath the gorse blossomed fitfully, when the rival factions met again. This time the battlefield was Bloreheath, in the North of Staffordshire, close to the Shropshire borderland. From Eccleshall the Queen - the beautiful, high-spirited, though unfortunate Margaret of Anjou - and her Council issued orders to Lord Audley, commanding him to intercept the Earl of Salisbury, who was marching from Middleham, in Yorkshire, to join the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of York at Ludlow. The latter claimed the throne in opposition to Henry VI, who now held the crown, was a descendant of John of Gaunt, a younger son of Edward III. The road from the ancient town of Newcastle-under-Lyme, is undulating, and the country through which it passes is pleasantly interesting. Some miles from the town there is a stiff climb up the fir-covered Blore Edge, from which the battlefield is not three miles distant. The village of Loggerheads lies below, with its inn displaying an odd sign, "The Three Loggerheads". Beyond is the battlefield. On the left of the road is to be seen Cross Field, and about the middle of it is a stone coross, apparently of very ancient date, which marks the spot where fell the Lancastrian leader, Lord Audley. it is much dilapidated and time-stained, and the inscription upon it is very difficult to decipher. It reads thus: On this spot was fought the Battle of Bloreheath in 1459 Lord Audley who commanded for the side of Lancaster, was defeated and slain. To perpetuate the memory of the action and the place this ancient monument was repaired in 1765 At the charge of the Lord of the Manor Charles Boothby Schrymsher On the far side of the cross a narrow valley stretches east and west. At the bottom of it a fussy little brook babbles through a verdant flowery croft, lazily rejoicing in having nothing to do but chatter. It is called Hemp Mill Brook, for in days long since [gone] it hurried along to turn the wheel of a hemp mill close by. It attained an unwanted degree of importance - never since realised - the day it formed the boundary line between the armies of the two factions about to engage in mortal combat. the remains of a miniature dam may still be seen and the foundations of the hemp mill clearly traced. the millrace, too, is there, and the mill cottage, now a farm. stands close by with a plank bridge leading to it, and a garden, rich in flowering plants and perfume, surrounding it. The homely quiet of the place contrasts strongly with the bustle and din, and the clanging of weapons and accoutrements that must have obtained on a Sunday morning four and a half centuries ago. It was close to the hemp mill where the thickest of the fight was and the noisy rivulet ran blood for three months - so the country people say. This is, of course, an absurd tale but the exaggeration is perhaps pardonable. Accounts of the awful carnage would be handed down through many generations - each succeeding decade finding the details more and more harrowing. Lord Audley chose a very strong position on the rising ground south of the stream, but he indiscreetly allowed himself, by the old trick of a feigned retreat on the part of his opponents, to be cheated of his advantage. He crossed the stream in pursuit of the retreating Yorkists, but on the opposite slope paid the penalty with his life for his rashness deceived by the tactics of the wily enemy. The battle was lost, and many brave Cheshire yeoman knight and esquires lay dead upon the marsh. Bloreheath no longer exists. It is enclosed and comforable farmsteads may be seen, here and there, dotting what was once a wide stretch of moorland. As I passed along the road which branches to the right, almost opposite the "The Three Loggerheads", I overtook a countryman. We fell into conversation. Up the hillside to the right lay a large whitewashed dwelling, and after pointing this place out as having been the scene of the blood-curdling murder of a rich man whose property was coverted by others, he went on to tell the popular legend of the old battlefield. Almost every place has its ancient tradition, to be had for the seeking, and the tale, substantially the same, was afterwards detailed to me more than once. Far away back these legends have their roots, and the growth of centuries clings tenaciously to them. Whether true in all details or not matters little. It may be well not to inquire too closely into this particular tradition, and after all, perhaps in regard to matters of this kind the practice of a little self-deception is a harmless sort of luxury. H.F. probably had his conversation on the Loggerheads to Mucklestone road. Therefore it is likely that the house which H.F. refers to is White House Farm, still present to this day on the hill roughly north-east of Loggerheads, and visible from miles around. It is said that Queen Margaret watched the battle from Mucklestone Church - the spire of which we could see half-hidden amongst the trees which clothe the slope of the Blore Edge. When the battle was over the Queen fled over the Heath towards Newcastle, having first taken the precaution to get her horse's shoes reversed in order that the soft turf might not betray the course of her flight. The smith, whose name was Skelhorn, lived near the church, and the smithy, now a wheel-wright's shop, is still pointed out by the villagers. Until lately, comparatively speaking, the house was occupied by a family of the same name. They claimed descent from the man who assisted the escape of a queen, just as two hundred years afterwards the Penderils found means of escape for a future king. Apart from its interesting associations, Mucklestone is a charming little village. The outlook from the church tower is very grand. A noble pine wood stretches down from the summit of Blore Edge, intercepting the view which was once to be had of the battlefield. About three miles to the west is the delightfully quaint old town of Market Drayton, with its ancient black-and-white timbered houses, which, could they speak, would tell of many a dying straggler from the bloody field who found quiet and protection within their friendly walls. H.F. circa 1870 The Battle of Blore Heath was the first major battle in the English Wars of the Roses and was fought on September 23, 1459, at Blore Heath in Staffordshire, two miles east of the town of Market Drayton in Shropshire, England. Background After the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, an uneasy peace held in England. Attempts at reconciliation between the houses of Lancaster and York enjoyed marginal success. However, both sides became increasingly wary of each other and by 1459 were actively recruiting armed supporters. The Queen (Margaret of Anjou) continued to raise support for the King (Henry VI) amongst noblemen, distributing an emblem of a silver swan to her supporters; whilst the Yorkist command under Richard, Duke of York was finding plenty of anti-royal support despite the severe punishment for raising arms against the King. The Yorkist force based at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire (led by Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury) needed to link up with the main Yorkist army at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire. As Salisbury marched south-west through the Midlands the Queen ordered James Touchet, Lord Audley to raise a force to intercept them. [edit] The battle Audley chose the barren heathland of Blore Heath to set up an ambush. On the morning of the 23 September 1459 (Saint Thecla's day), a force of some 6-12,000 men took up a defensive position behind a 'great hedge' on the south-western edge of Blore Heath facing the direction of Newcastle-under-Lyme to the north-east, the direction from which Salisbury was approaching. Yorkist scouts spotted Lancastrian banners visible over the top of a hedge and immediately warned Salisbury. As they emerged from the woodland, the Yorkist force of some 3-6,000 men realized that a much larger enemy force was awaiting their arrival. Salisbury immediately arranged his men into battle order, just out of range of the Lancastrian archers. To secure his right flank, he arranged the supply wagons in a defensive laager, a circular formation to provide cover to the men on that flank. Fearing a rout, Yorkist soldiers are reported to have kissed the ground beneath them, supposing that this would be the ground on which they would meet their deaths. The two armies were separated by about 300 metres on the barren heathland. A steep-sided, wide and fast-flowing brook flowed between them. The brook made Audley's position seemingly inpenetrable. Initially, both leaders sought to parley in a futile attempt to avoid bloodshed. In keeping with many late medieval battles, the conflict opened with an archery duel between the longbows of both armies. At Blore Heath, this proved inconclusive because of the distance between the two sides. Salisbury, aware that any attack across the brook would be suicidal, employed a ruse to encourage the enemy to attack him. He withdrew some of his middle-order just far enough that the Lancastrians believed them to be retreating. The Lancastrians launched a cavalry charge. After they had committed themselves, Salisbury ordered his men to turn back and catch the Lancastrians as they attempted to cross the brook. It is possible that the order for this Lancastrian charge was not given by Audley but it had the effect of turning the balance in favour of Salisbury. The charge resulted in heavy casualties for the Lancastrians. The Lancastrians withdrew, and then made a second assault, possibly attempting to rescue casualties. This second attack was more successful with many Lancastrians crossing the brook. This led to a period of intense fighting in which Audley himself was killed, possibly by Sir Roger Kynaston of Stocks near Ellesmere. The death of Audley meant that Lancastrian command devolved on to the second-in-command John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley who ordered an attack on foot with some 4,000 men. As this attack also failed, some 500 Lancastrians joined the enemy and began attacking their own side. At this, any remaining Lancastrian resistance collapsed and the Yorkists only had to advance to complete the rout. The rout continued through the night, with the Yorkists pursuing the fleeing enemy for miles across the countryside. Salisbury was concerned that Lancastrian reinforcements were in the vicinity and was keen to press on towards Ludlow. He made his camp on a hillside at Market Drayton, which later took his name. Salisbury employed a local friar to remain on Blore Heath throughout the night and to periodically discharge a cannon in order to deceive any proximal Lancastrians into believing that the fight was continuing. It is believed that at least 3,000 men died in the battle, with at least 2,000 of these from the Lancastrian side. Local legend says that Hempmill Brook flowed with blood for 3 days after the battle. Legend has it that Margaret of Anjou watched the battle from the spire of the church in nearby Mucklestone, before fleeing when she realised Audley was being defeated. It is said that she employed a blacksmith, William Skelhorn, to reverse the shoes on her horse to disguise her escape. The anvil from the smithy stands in the churchyard at Mucklestone to commemorate this event. A cross was erected on Blore Heath after the battle to mark the spot where Audley was slain. It was replaced with a stone cross in 1765. Audley's Cross stands on Blore Heath to this day. Audley is buried in Darley Abbey in Derbyshire. The battle is commemorated by a re-enactment each year in September at Blore Heath Egerton, John (I12067)
 
4 "By his wife, Isabel (Eva) de Clare he had five sons and five daughters. Following a curse made by a priest who claimed to have been deprived of some land, and unfortunately believed by his wife, all his sons died childless, but the daughters had descendants." http://www.magnacharta.com COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE Isabella Fitzgilbert De Clare (I22764)
 
5 "HENRY de BOHUN, the Surety, was born before 1177. He became the first Earl of Hereford of this family, for he was so created by the Charter of King John, dated 28 April 1199. Even though he took the Barons' side against the King, on becoming Earl of Hereford he had promised that he would never make any claim against John or his heirs, on the basis of a Charter given to his great uncle Roger by Henry II. The office of Lord High Constable of England he inherited from his father, but he seems to have played no other active part in John's government. As he took a prominent part with the Barons against King John, his lands were confiscated, but he received them again at the granting of Magna Charta. Having been excommunicated along with the other Barons, he did not return to his allegiance on the decease of King John, but became one of the commanders in the Army of Louis the Dauphin, at the Battle of Lincoln, and was taken prisoner by William Marshall. After this defeat he joined Saire de Quincey and other Magna Charta Barons in a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1220, and died on the passage 1 June 1220. His body was brought home and buried in the chapter-house of Llanthony Abbey in Gloucestershire." E of Hereford Henry De Bohun (I5099)
 
6 "In a room of the Tower of London in August 1189, two people who were about to be married met for the first time. This twist of fate or act of destiny would have a far-reaching effect on English history. The young lady was Isabel de Clare, sole heiress of Richard Strongbow de Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil, and Aoife, daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster. The man was William Marshal, the second son of John the Marshal and Sibyl, sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury. There are no accounts of this first meeting nor of their marriage ceremony, but this was the final step in the making of one of the greatest knights and magnates of medieval English history. William Marshal's life is well documented because less than a year after his death in 1219, his eldest son William II commissioned a record of his father's life. "L' Historie de Guillaume le Marechal," is a metrical history of a man and of the knightly class in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century. William Marshal was born c 1146, and as a younger son, becoming a knight was his natural choice of a path to success and survival. Marshal was sent to his father's cousin William of Tancarville, hereditary Chamberlain of Normandy, to be trained as a knight in c1159. He was knighted, probably by his uncle, in 1167. In 1170 William Marshal was appointed head of the mesnie (military) household of the young Prince Henry by King Henry II. From this time until young Henry's death in June of 1183, Marshal was responsible for protecting, training and running the military household of the heir. In 1173, William Marshal knighted the young Henry, and thereby became Henry's lord in chivalry. We know that Marshal led young Henry and his mesnie to many victories on the tournament fields of Normandy. It is during the years from 1170 to 1183 that William Marshal established his status as an undefeated knight in tournaments. It is here that Marshal began to establish his friendships with the powerful and influential men of his day. His reputation and his character were built through his own actions and abilities. In this age of feudalism, Marshal was a landless knight. He had no lord from whom he could gain advantages or status. On the death of the young Henry, Marshal obtained permission from Henry II to take the young Henry's cross to Jerusalem. Marshal spent two years in the Holy Land fighting for King Guy of Jerusalem and the Knights' Templar. There are no known records of his time in the east, but we know that some of the castle building techniques he later used at Pembroke were probably learned here. Henry II granted Marshal his first fief, Cartmel in Lancashire, in 1187. With this fief Marshal became a vassal of King Henry II and swore fealty to him as his lord and his king. Until Henry II's death in 1188, William Marshal served as his knight, his counselor, and his ambassador. When Richard I came to the throne, he recognized Marshal as a brother and equal in chivalry. Fulfilling the promise made by his father, Richard gave Marshal the heiress Isabel de Clare and all her lands in marriage. With this marriage, William Marshal became "in right of his wife" one of the greatest lords and magnates in the Plantagenet kingdom. Isabel brought to Marshal the palatine lordships of Pembroke and Striguil in Wales and the lordship of Leinster in Ireland. These were large fiefs of land where the lord held as tenant-in-chief of the Crown. A palatine lord's word was law within his lands. He had the right to appoint his own officials, courts and sheriffs, and collect and keep the proceeds of his courts and governments. Except for ecclesiastical cases, the king's writ did not run in the palatinates. King Richard also allowed Marshal to have 1/2 of the barony of Giffard for 2000 marks. This barony was split with Richard de Clare, Earl of Clare and Hertford, who held the barony in England as lord while Marshal held the land in Normandy as lord. This gave Marshal the demesne manors of Crendon in Buckinghamshire and Caversham in Oxfordshire, for 43 knights' fees, and the fief of Longueville in Normandy with the castles of Longueville and Mueller and Moulineaux, for about 40 knights' fees. Marshal considered the lands that he held to be one unit, not separate units of English, Irish, Welsh, and Norman lands. They were a compact whole to be preserved and improved for the inheritance of his children. Marshal used what he had learned fighting in Normandy and in the Holy Land to improve these fiefs. Without including his lands in Normandy and Ireland, as feudal lord Marshal controlled a vast amount of land, wealth, and knights/vassals in the Angevin kingdom. William Marshal served King Richard faithfully as knight, vassal, ambassador, itinerant justice, associate justiciar, counselor, and friend. On Richard I's untimely death in 1199, William Marshal supported John as heir to the throne rather than John's nephew, Arthur of Brittany. It was King John who belted William Marshal and created him Earl of Pembroke on the same day that John was crowned King, May 27, 1199. It is during King John's reign that the character of William Marshal is clearly revealed. John's character has been drawn by countless historians, and none have been able to erase the ineptitude that King John displayed when dealing with his English barons. Whatever his motives were, John inevitably alienated his greatest barons despite the fact that he needed their support and loyalty to rule England. William Marshal was a powerful, respected, wise and loyal knight and baron who had already served two Angevin kings. King John, however, accused Marshal of being a traitor, took all of Marshal's English and Welsh castles, took Marshal's two older sons as hostages, tried to take Marshal's lands in Leinster, and even tried to get his own household knights to challenge Marshal to trial by combat. Despite all of this, William Marshal remained loyal to his feudal lord. He did not rebel when John took his castles; he gave up his two sons as hostages; he supported John against the Papal Interdict; and he supported John in the baronial rebellion. Of all the bonds of feudalism, the greatest and the most important bond was the one of fealty, of loyalty to one's lord. To break this bond and oath was treason, and this was the greatest of crimes. William Marshal was the epitome of knighthood and chivalry. He did not simply espouse it. Marshal's entire life was governed by his oaths of fealty and by his own innate sense of honour. If Marshal had taken his lands, castles, and knights to the side of the rebellion, King John would have lost his crown and perhaps his life. On the death of John, October 19,1216, William Marshal was chosen by his peers in England as regent for the nine year old Henry III. Henry was knighted and then crowned under the seal of the Earl of Pembroke. William Marshal was the main force and impetus for the defeat of Philip II of France, even leading the attack to relieve Lincoln castle in May 1217 though he was seventy years old. On September 11, 1217, Marshal negotiated the Treaty of Lambeth that ended the war. By his wise treatment of those English barons who had supported Philip II against King John, Marshal ensured the restoration of peace and order in England. This undefeated knight had become a great statesman in the last years of his life. William Marshal died May 14, 1219 at Caversham and was buried as a Knight Templar in the Temple Church in London." "William Marshal had been born during the Civil Wars of King Stephen and Empress Mathilda. He trained and knighted one intended king; served faithfully Kings Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, and John Lackland; and knighted and served as regent for a fourth king. As "rector regis et regni," Marshal had the Great Charter reissued in 1216 and in 1217 for the welfare and future of England and the Crown. There are many explanations and definitions of Marshal, his life and his time. Some say he survived so long and so well because of his physical stamina and condition, that he was simply a man of great physical strength. This gives only a piece of the complete portrait of William Marshal. He was a brilliant strategist in terms of his world, militarily and politically. He lived and survived in Henry II's arena, earning Henry's respect and affection. No man of little intelligence would have survived very long there. William Marshal can be understood in terms of his world of feudalism, fealty, loyalty and honour. Marshal stood by King John because of Marshal's oath of fealty and homage to his "lord," who also happened to be the King. William Marshal was a man who lived his life according to his sense of honour, and his sense of honour was defined in the laws and customs of feudalism and knighthood. It is that sense of honour that made no man equal to William Marshal, knight, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil, Lord of Leinster, and Regent of England. Of all the barons assembled at Runnemede, William Marshall was the most distinguished. He was not one of those opposed to King John; he was an old man and had served as counselor to three Plantagenet Kings, His part was that of intermediary. While not a surety he deserves our veneration more than any of the twenty-five. It was he who made possible the realization of Magna Charta. In his youth he was acclaimed by his contemporaries as the perfect type of chivalry. In his old age and in history he appears as one of the noblest of medieval soldier statesmen. He filled the foremost places in England and Ireland, and never compromised his honor. He is described as tall and handsome, of beautiful countenance and dignified bearing, with unusual strength. We do not know the exact date of his birth but it must have been shortly before 1140, for as a boy in 1152 he was given by his father as a hostage to King Stephen, and he was over 80 when he died in 1219. He was the second son of John Marshall, by his wife Sybil, sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury, and daughter of Walter d’Evreux, and grandson of Gilbert Marshall from whom he inherited the office of Marshall. His early life reads like a story from King Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table. He seemed to move in an aura of fantasy, as if led to perform legendary deeds. He saved the life of Richard Coeur de Lion, carried the heart of young King Henry, son of Henry II, to Palestine, served as guardian to two boy Kings and remained unmarried until at the age of 50 he could win the hand of a great heiress, and then had ten children. In 1167 he returned to England to live with his uncle, the Earl of Salisbury. Shortly after he followed the Earl in a campaign in Normandy, where, while defending his uncle in an ambush he was taken prisoner, but later escaped. At this time he was unsurpassed in the tourney; it is said that, with a companion, Roger de Gaugi, captured 103 Knights, in different parts of France. In 1170 he was given charge of the young King Henry, son of Henry II, who was made, although a boy, King of England during his father’s life time. Thus, early in his life, he was charged with loyalty to the crown, and remained constantly with the prince until the latter’s death in 1183. The young Henry was so devoted to William that, on his deathbed, he beseeched his friend to take his heart to the Holy Land, which William Marshall did the same year. In 1188 a crucial event in his life occurred. He was in battle fighting the forces of Prince Richard, who was in rebellion against his father, Henry II, when he came face to face with the prince and could have slain him. Richard called out "slay me not, for I am unarmed." William killed Richard’s horse instead and saved the prince. One year later William was at the deathbed of Henry II. On Richard’s accession to the throne, he remembered he owed his life to William, and gave him in marriage to the great heiress of Struguil, Eva, daughter of Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke and granddaughter of Dermot, King of Leinster. She was only seventeen, he about fifty. Soon after Richard left on the Crusade for which he became so famous; William Longchamps was left in charge of the kingdom, and William Marshall counselor to him. On Richard’s return he continued as advisor to the King, and acted as mediator between Richard and Philip of France. At Richard’s death in 1199, William Marshall seems to have been the one responsible for John’s succession. Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, headed the council to decide between Arthur, who, as son of John’s elder brother Geoffrey Duke of Brittany, was therefor first in succession, and John himself. In the discussion William exclaimed "Arthur is a tool of the French, he loves not England." He sensed that John, in spite of his trickery, would be accepted by the English. In this decision, we may not discern the wisdom for which William was noted, for our sympathies are apt to be swayed by romance. But from the facts we know of Arthur he was a worthless fellow, not a boy at all as Shakespeare described him, but a young man with little sense of loyalty. He had never been in England. During most of John’s reign, Marshall was occupied with his estates in Ireland. He sheltered there William de Braise who fled from Wales - a matter which brought John to Ireland. Here, William’s firmness and reasonableness, combined with his reputation for loyalty to the crown, saved him from John’s revenge. He always used his influence on the side of justice and moderation; John continued to employ him as mediator between himself and his barons. As we know already, he was at King John’s side at Runnemeade, although in sympathy with the baron’s cause. What part he played in the framing of Magna Charta is a matter of conjecture, but it is difficult to believe that Stephen Langton was alone responsible, or that the justiciars, or William Hardell had the foresight and sagacity to word many of the clauses that made the Charta immortal. William Marshall had those qualities, besides that serenity of mind that comes from age and experience. His biographers, while unstinting in their admiration, point out he belonged to the age of feudalism, his own age, when loyalty to one’s overlord was the supreme virtue; he was no prophet of a new order. On the other hand, Magna Charta was not a revolutionary document; it was eminently a practical body of laws and judgements based largely on previous and existing laws and customs. William Marshall was the supreme man for the hour when John died, leaving as his heir a boy of nine. One half of the kingdom was in the hands of the French King; there was civil war. To William Marshall was entrusted the task of guarding the safety of the young king, whom he personally knighted; he was appointed "Guardian of the King and of the Realm." His direction of the battle of Lincoln was a masterpiece of strategy. It is worth noting that Saher de Quincy was taken prisoner by him in this campaign. It was during the three years of disorder after the death of John that William Marshall’s greatest and special work was done accomplishing the pacification of the country. Only his wisdom and courage preserved England from becoming a tributary province of France; it was he in truth who made possible the realization of Magna Charta. As death approached, he retired to his manor of Cavershamin Berkshire, which was his patrimony. He had castles in Ireland and Wales where he could have died surrounded by pomp, but he preferred the place of his birth. He died May 14, 1219. As he had been in the Holy Land, he was buried in the Knight’s Templer’s Church in London, where his tomb still exists." http://www.magnacharta.com Below: Tomb effigy of William Marshal at Temple Church, London. In a room of the Tower of London in August 1189, two people who were about to be married met for the first time. This twist of fate or act of destiny would have a far-reaching effect on English history. The young lady was Isabel de Clare, sole heiress of Richard Strongbow de Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil, and Aoife, daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster. The man was William Marshal, the second son of John the Marshal and Sibyl, sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury. There are no accounts of this first meeting nor of their marriage ceremony, but this was the final step in the making of one of the greatest knights and magnates of medieval English history. William Marshal's life is well documented because less than a year after his death in 1219, his eldest son William II commissioned a record of his father's life. "L' Historie de Guillaume le Marechal," is a metrical history of a man and of the knightly class in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century. Little is known about the writer of "L' Historie" except that his first name was Jean, that he personally witnessed some of the events in Marshal's later life, and that he had access to Marshal's squire John D'Erley. The point of view is that of the secular knightly class and not of the ecclesiastical class. The events recorded in "L' Historie" can be verified in most instances by the official records in the Pipe Rolls, Charter Rolls, Close Rolls, Patent Rolls, Oblatis Rolls, and chronicles of the times. William Marshal was born c 1146, and as a younger son, becoming a knight was his natural choice of a path to success and survival. Marshal was sent to his father's cousin William of Tancarville, hereditary Chamberlain of Normandy, to be trained as a knight in c1159. He was knighted, probably by his uncle, in 1167. In 1170 William Marshal was appointed head of the mesnie (military) household of the young Prince Henry by King Henry II. From this time until young Henry's death in June of 1183, Marshal was responsible for protecting, training and running the military household of the heir. In 1173, William Marshal knighted the young Henry, and thereby became Henry's lord in chivalry. We know that Marshal led young Henry and his mesnie to many victories on the tournament fields of Normandy. It is during the years from 1170 to 1183 that William Marshal established his status as an undefeated knight in tournaments. It is here that Marshal began to establish his friendships with the powerful and influential men of his day. His reputation and his character were built through his own actions and abilities. In this age of feudalism, Marshal was a landless knight. He had no lord from whom he could gain advantages or status. On the death of the young Henry, Marshal obtained permission from Henry II to take the young Henry's cross to Jerusalem. Marshal spent two years in the Holy Land fighting for King Guy of Jerusalem and the Knights' Templar. There are no known records of his time in the east, but we know that some of the castle building techniques he later used at Pembroke were probably learned here. Henry II granted Marshal his first fief, Cartmel in Lancashire, in 1187. With this fief Marshal became a vassal of King Henry II and swore fealty to him as his lord and his king. Until Henry II's death in 1188, William Marshal served as his knight, his counselor, and his ambassador. When Richard I came to the throne, he recognized Marshal as a brother and equal in chivalry. Fulfilling the promise made by his father, Richard gave Marshal the heiress Isabel de Clare and all her lands in marriage. With this marriage, William Marshal became "in right of his wife" one of the greatest lords and magnates in the Plantagenet kingdom. Isabel brought to Marshal the palatine lordships of Pembroke and Striguil in Wales and the lordship of Leinster in Ireland. These were large fiefs of land where the lord held as tenant-in-chief of the Crown. A palatine lord's word was law within his lands. He had the right to appoint his own officials, courts and sheriffs, and collect and keep the proceeds of his courts and governments. Except for ecclesiastical cases, the king's writ did not run in the palatinates. King Richard also allowed Marshal to have 1/2 of the barony of Giffard for 2000 marks. This barony was split with Richard de Clare, Earl of Clare and Hertford, who held the barony in England as lord while Marshal held the land in Normandy as lord. This gave Marshal the demesne manors of Crendon in Buckinghamshire and Caversham in Oxfordshire, for 43 knights' fees, and the fief of Longueville in Normandy with the castles of Longueville and Mueller and Moulineaux, for about 40 knights' fees. Marshal considered the lands that he held to be one unit, not separate units of English, Irish, Welsh, and Norman lands. They were a compact whole to be preserved and improved for the inheritance of his children. Marshal used what he had learned fighting in Normandy and in the Holy Land to improve these fiefs. The great Tower, the Horseshoe Gatehouse, and the fighting gallery in the outer curtain wall at Pembroke were built under his guidance. At Chepstow (Striguil), he was responsible for the gate in the middle bailey, the rebuilding of the upper level of the keep, the west barbican, and the upper and lower bailey. Marshal was also responsible for the building of the castle at Kilkenny, the new castle at Emlyn, and for taking and improving Cilgerran. From a list of castles by R. A. Brown for the period from 1153 to 1214, Marshal held Chepstow, Cilgerran, Emlyn, Goodrich, Haverford, Inkberrow, Pembroke, Tenby, and Usk in England and Wales. Just these castles would have produced more than two hundred knights' fees owed by Marshal to the Crown. Without including his lands in Normandy and Ireland, as feudal lord Marshal controlled a vast amount of land, wealth, and knights/vassals in the Angevin kingdom. William Marshal served King Richard faithfully as knight, vassal, ambassador, itinerant justice, associate justiciar, counselor, and friend. On Richard I's untimely death in 1199, William Marshal supported John as heir to the throne rather than John's nephew, Arthur of Brittany. It was King John who belted William Marshal and created him Earl of Pembroke on the same day that John was crowned King, May 27, 1199. It is during King John's reign that the character of William Marshal is clearly revealed. John's character has been drawn by countless historians, and none have been able to erase the ineptitude that King John displayed when dealing with his English barons. Whatever his motives were, John inevitably alienated his greatest barons despite the fact that he needed their support and loyalty to rule England. William Marshal was a powerful, respected, wise and loyal knight and baron who had already served two Angevin kings. King John, however, accused Marshal of being a traitor, took all of Marshal's English and Welsh castles, took Marshal's two older sons as hostages, tried to take Marshal's lands in Leinster, and even tried to get his own household knights to challenge Marshal to trial by combat. Despite all of this, William Marshal remained loyal to his feudal lord. He did not rebel when John took his castles; he gave up his two sons as hostages; he supported John against the Papal Interdict; and he supported John in the baronial rebellion. Of all the bonds of feudalism, the greatest and the most important bond was the one of fealty, of loyalty to one's lord. To break this bond and oath was treason, and this was the greatest of crimes. William Marshal was the epitome of knighthood and chivalry. He did not simply espouse it. Marshal's entire life was governed by his oaths of fealty and by his own innate sense of honour. If Marshal had taken his lands, castles, and knights to the side of the rebellion, King John would have lost his crown and perhaps his life. On the death of John, October 19,1216, William Marshal was chosen by his peers in England as regent for the nine year old Henry III. Henry was knighted and then crowned under the seal of the Earl of Pembroke. William Marshal was the main force and impetus for the defeat of Philip II of France, even leading the attack to relieve Lincoln castle in May 1217 though he was seventy years old. On September 11, 1217, Marshal negotiated the Treaty of Lambeth that ended the war. By his wise treatment of those English barons who had supported Philip II against King John, Marshal ensured the restoration of peace and order in England. This undefeated knight had become a great statesman in the last years of his life. William Marshal died May 14, 1219 at Caversham and was buried as a Knight Templar in the Temple Church in London. William Marshal had been born during the Civil Wars of King Stephen and Empress Mathilda. He trained and knighted one intended king; served faithfully Kings Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, and John Lackland; and knighted and served as regent for a fourth king. As "rector regis et regni," Marshal had the Great Charter reissued in 1216 and in 1217 for the welfare and future of England and the Crown. There are many explanations and definitions of Marshal, his life and his time. Some say he survived so long and so well because of his physical stamina and condition, that he was simply a man of great physical strength. This gives only a piece of the complete portrait of William Marshal. He was a brilliant strategist in terms of his world, militarily and politically. He lived and survived in Henry II's arena, earning Henry's respect and affection. No man of little intelligence would have survived very long there. William Marshal can be understood in terms of his world of feudalism, fealty, loyalty and honour. Marshal stood by King John because of Marshal's oath of fealty and homage to his "lord," who also happened to be the King. William Marshal was a man who lived his life according to his sense of honour, and his sense of honour was defined in the laws and customs of feudalism and knighthood. It is that sense of honour that made no man equal to William Marshal, knight, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil, Lord of Leinster, and Regent of England Marshall, E of Pembroke William (I11030)
 
7 "Reginald supported Giles in his rebellions against King John. They were both active against the King in the barons' war. Neither was present at the signing of Magna Carta because they were still rebels who refused to compromise. King John aquiesced to Reginald's claims to the de Braose estates in Wales in May 1216. He became Lord of Brecon, Abergavenny, Builth and other Marcher Lordships but was very much a vassal of Llewelyn Fawr, Prince of Gwynedd and now his father-in-law. Henry III restored Reginald to favour and the Bramber estates (confiscated from William by King John) in 1217. At this seeming betrayal, Rhys and Owain, Reginald's nephews who were princes of Deheubarth, were incensed and they took Builth (except the castle). Llewelyn Fawr also became angry and besieged Brecon. Reginald eventually surrendered to Llewelyn and gave up Seinenydd (Swansea). By 1221 they were at war again with Llewelyn laying siege to Builth. The seige was relieved by Henry III's forces. From this time on Llewelyn tended to support the claims of Reginald's nephew John concerning the de Braose lands. Reginald was a witness to the re-issue of Magna Carta by Henry III in 1225." Reginald De Braose (I14977)
 
8 "The Catos came from Scotland to America in 1654 & settled in Carolina. It is thought that they were orinally from Italy. Some were living in Richmond VA in the year 1800. Cato Lane in Nashville TN was named after the Catos. John Henry Cato I served in the Revolutionary War as a surveyor. The government paid him with 800 acres of land in Wilson Co., TN. He had slaves but left a will saying to release them when he died. John Henry II was blacksmith in Williamsburg, VA. When he died, John Henry I sent for Ollie (John II's wife) & children to come live with him in TN. 3 children-Britiania born 1800, John Westly born 1803?, & George Edwin Cato b. 1798. George Edwin Cato (John II's son) married Euphamia Rieff in Wilson Co., TN, Jan. 1, 1822 (or Mar. 1, 1822). They had 5 children in TN & 5 children in IL. They left TN Oct. 30, 1830 in a two-wheel cart with a cow & a pony pulling it. They got to Carrolton, IL in the worst blizzard in history. They stayed with the McPheron family. George rode a horse beside the cart. Jacob Cato (George's son) & wife & Jacob's brother John Henry III left Carrolton with a wagon & a span of mules. Jacob & wife in wagon & John Henry III on horseback. They had to ford either the Missouri or the Mississippi River at St. Louis, MO. They got Uncle Tarus (Tarius) Rieff's house - 4 miles south of Fayetteville, AR in 1846. They homesteaded there (it was later called Cato Springs). Jacob & his wife lived there. Jacob & family moved to Jerrysville, IL during or after the Civil War. They later came back to Cato Springs. John Henry III (George's son) married Elizabeth Wiley. Her father was president of a college. She is buried at Rieff Chapel, Fayetteville, AR. John III enlisted in the Confederate Army. The North took over Fayetteville, Ark. John hid-one day he was captured. He was put in a Northern prison (IL). His parents visited him several times. He died in the prison of small pox or measles. John & Elizabeth had the children: 1. Emmett, born 1860. Died 1838 at age 46. He married (1906?) Ida Whitener Bryson. She was 19. She had 2 girls Irene & Ada was born 1887 ? died 1939 age 52. 2. Quintus married had children- lived around Durango Colorado & Apple Valley, Colorado. 3. John Henry V - named V because Jacob (John III's brother) named his son John Henry IV. John Henry IV son of Jacob R. He is the brother of Elizabeth. John IV & 1st wife had 3 children: Talula (mother of Kathleen Colman) married to Reed. 2. Emma & 3. Lena. John IV had 2nd wife Elizabeth Reed had 1. son Fred who marrried Ida Kate Williams. Elizabeth Reed was sister to Reed who married Talula. Cato, Quintus (I14478)
 
9 & of Crewe Fulleshurst, Isabella (I7953)
 
10 <i>1841 Census Returns</i>. London, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO). HO 107 Census Returns. Source (S263)
 
11 <i>Actes de naissances des registres civils et paroissiaux originaux des communes et paroisses du département de la Marne</i>. Châlons-en-Champagne: Centre Généalogique et Héraldique de la Marne. Source (S267)
 
12 <i>Applications for Headstones for U.S. Military Veterans, 1925-1941.</i> Microfilm publication M1916, 134 rolls. ARC ID: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/596118">596118</a>. Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, Record Group 92. National Archives at Washington, D.C.<p><i>Applications for Headstones, compiled 01/01/1925 - 06/30/1970, documenting the period ca. 1776 - 1970</i> ARC: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/596118">596118</a>. Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, 1774–1985, Record Group 92. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.</p> Source (S88)
 
13 <i>Card Index</i>. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Sons of the Utah Pioneers. Source (S265)
 
14 <i>Census Returns of England and Wales, 1851</i>. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1851. Data imaged from the National Archives, London, England. The National Archives gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to the National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU. Source (S246)
 
15 <i>Census Returns of England and Wales, 1851</i>. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1851. Data imaged from the National Archives, London, England. The National Archives gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to the National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU. Source (S259)
 
16 <i>Census Returns of England and Wales, 1861</i>. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1861. Data imaged from The National Archives, London, England. The National Archives gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU. Source (S188)
 
17 <i>Census Returns of England and Wales, 1861</i>. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1861. Data imaged from The National Archives, London, England. The National Archives gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU. Source (S240)
 
18 <i>Census Returns of England and Wales, 1911</i>. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA), 1911. <p>Data imaged from the National Archives, London, England. The National Archives gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to the National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU.</p> Source (S208)
 
19 <i>Church of England Parish Registers, 1538-1812</i>. London, England: London Metropolitan Archives. <p>Images produced by permission of the City of London Corporation Libraries, Archives. The City of London gives no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided. Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education. Applications for any other use should be made to the City of London, Guildhall, PO Box 270, London, EC2P 2EJ. Infringement of the above condition may result in legal action.</p> Source (S266)
 
20 <i>Civil War Muster Roll Abstracts of New York State Volunteers, United States Sharpshooters, and United States Colored Troops [ca. 1861-1900].</i> Microfilm, 1185 rolls. New York State Archives, Albany, New York. Source (S233)
 
21 <i>England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975</i>. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. Source (S191)
 
22 <i>England, Marriages, 1538–1973</i>. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. Source (S105)
 
23 <i>Famine Irish Entry Project, 1846-1851</i>. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. Source (S252)
 
24 <i>Find A Grave</i>. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi. Source (S86)
 
25 <i>Find A Grave</i>. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi. Source (S167)
 
26 <i>Find A Grave</i>. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi: accessed 4 February 2013. Source (S196)
 
27 <i>General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934</i>. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls. Source (S227)
 
28 <i>Maine Birth Records, 1621-1922</i>. Augusta, Maine: Maine State Archives. Source (S139)
 
29 <i>Missouri Marriage Records</i>. Jefferson City, MO, USA: Missouri State Archives. Microfilm. Source (S193)
 
30 <i>Montana, County Marriages, 1865-1950</i>. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. Source (S164)
 
31 <i>Ohio Marriage Index, 1970 and 1972-2007</i>. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Department of Health, Office of Vital Statistics, 2008. Source (S211)
 
32 <i>Pennsylvania Miracode</i>. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. Source (S254)
 
33 <i>Selected Passenger and Crew Lists and Manifests</i>. National Archives, Washington, D.C.<p><a href="/search/dbextra.aspx?dbid=7484">View all sources</a>.</p> Source (S249)
 
34 <i>Selected Passports</i>. National Archives, Washington, D.C.<p><br>A full list of sources can be found <a href="/search/dbextra.aspx?dbid=1174">here</a>.</p> Source (S268)
 
35 <i>Selected U.S. Naturalization Records</i>. Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. <p><a href="/search/dbextra.aspx?dbid=1629">View Full Source Citations</a>.</p> Source (S270)
 
36 <i>The Charles R. Hale Collection</i>. <i>Hale Collection of Connecticut Cemetery Inscriptions.</i> Hartford, Connecticut: Connecticut State Library. Source (S262)
 
37 <i>Utah, Marriages, 1887-1966</i>. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. Source (S217)
 
38 <i>Utah, Salt Lake County Death Records, 1908-1949</i>. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. Source (S200)
 
39 <i>Voter Registration Lists, Public Record Filings, Historical Residential Records, and Other Household Database Listings</i>. Source (S223)
 
40 <p><i>Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registrations, 1863-1865</i>. NM-65, entry 172, 620 volumes. ARC ID: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/4213514">4213514</a>. Records of the Provost Marshal General’s Bureau (Civil War), Record Group 110. National Archives at Washington D.C.</p> Source (S213)
 
41 <p><i>Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registrations, 1863-1865</i>. NM-65, entry 172, 620 volumes. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/4213514" target="_blank">4213514</a>. Records of the Provost Marshal General’s Bureau (Civil War), Record Group 110. National Archives at Washington D.C.</p> Source (S228)
 
42 <p><i>Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registrations, 1863-1865</i>. NM-65, entry 172, 620 volumes. Records of the Provost Marshal General’s Bureau (Civil War), Record Group 110. National Archives, Washington D.C.</p> Source (S33)
 
43 <p><i>Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820-1897. </i> Microfilm Publication M237, 675 rolls. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/6256867" target="_blank">6256867</a>. Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Record Group 36. National Archives at Washington, D.C.</p> <p><i>Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957.</i> Microfilm Publication T715, 8892 rolls. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/300346" target="_blank">300346</a>. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives at Washington, D.C.</p> <p><i>Supplemental Manifests of Alien Passengers and Crew Members Who Arrived on Vessels at New York, New York, Who Were Inspected for Admission, and Related Index, compiled 1887-1952.</i> Microfilm Publication A3461, 21 rolls. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/3887372" target="_blank">3887372.</a> RG 85, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1787-2004; Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives, Washington, D.C. </p> <p><i>Index to Alien Crewmen Who Were Discharged or Who Deserted at New York, New York, May 1917-Nov. 1957.</i> Microfilm Publication A3417. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/4497925" target="_blank">4497925.</a> National Archives at Washington, D.C.</p> <p><i>Passenger Lists, 1962-1972, and Crew Lists, 1943-1972, of Vessels Arriving at Oswego, New York.</i> Microfilm Publication A3426. NAI: <a href="http://research.archives.gov/description/4441521" target="_blank">4441521.</a> National Archives at Washington, D.C.</p> Source (S96)
 
44 <p><li><i>Vital Records of Bellingham Massachusetts to the Year 1850.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1904.</li></p><p><li><i>Vital Records of Granville Massachusetts to the Year 1850.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1914.</li></p><p><li><i>Vital Records of Lawrence Massachusetts to the Year 1850.</i> Salem, MA: Essex Institute, 1926.</li></p><p><li><i>Vital Records of Lincoln Massachusetts to the Year 1850.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1908.</li></p><p><li><i>Vital Records of Richmond Massachusetts to the Year1850.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1913.</li></p><p><li><i>Vital Records of Shirley Massachusetts to the Year 1850.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1918.</li></p><p><li>New England Historic Genealogical Society. <i>Vital Records of Chelmsford Massachusetts to the Year 1849.</i> Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1914.</li></p> Source (S241)
 
45 <p><li>Montana State Genealogical Society, comp. <i>Montana Death Index, 1860-2007</i>. Montana State Genealogical Society, Lewis & Clark Library, 120 S Last Chance Gulch, Helena, MT 59620. Copyright 2008.</li></p><p><li>State of Montana, comp. <i>Montana State Death Registry Index, 1907-1953.</i> Montana State Genealogical Society, Montana.</li></p><p><li>State of Montana, comp. <i>Montana Death Index, 1954-2002.</i> State of Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services, Office of Vital Statistics, Helena, Montana.</li></p> Source (S237)
 
46 <p>"Arkansas County Marriages, 1838–1957." Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009, 2011. "Arkansas County Marriages, 1838–1957," database, FamilySearch; from Arkansas Courts of Common Pleas and County Clerks. Digital images of originals housed at various county courthouses in the State of Arkansas. Marriage records.</p> Source (S199)
 
47 <p>"Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths, 1916–1947." Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2010. Index entries derived from digital copies of original records.</p> Source (S147)
 
48 <p>Interment Control Forms, 1928–1962. Interment Control Forms, A1 2110-B. Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, 1774–1985, Record Group 92. The National Archives at College Park, College Park, Maryland.</p> Source (S172)
 
49 <p>New York (State). Bureau of Military Statistics. Registers of Officers and Enlisted Men Mustered into Federal Military or Naval Service during the Civil War. Series A0389 (6 volumes). Albany, New York: New York State Archives.</p> Source (S107)
 
50 <p>Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M246, 138 rolls); War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93; National Archives, Washington. D.C.</p> Source (S184)
 

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